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Zum Tod von Ivan Illich
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First "Oakland-Table"
2nd of September to 7th of October 2000

The First "Oakland-Table" took place at We the people in 200 Harrison St., Oakland, on Saturday, September 2nd. A general description of the "Oakland-Table" project you find here.

  • Notes by Debbie Moore on the "Oakland Table" 2000
  • Robert, Jean (2001): "Place in the space age." Contribution to the 1st "Oakland Table", 2000.
  • Seminarreader (Seminarreader as pdf-file)

    The keynote lectures Seminars
    Gustavo Esteva
    People regenerating Places
    Antje Menk
    Language Policy in Multilingual Settings
    Douglas Lummis
    Democracy and Place
    David Cayley
    The War on Subsistence: The thought of Illich
    John Turners
    Tools for Community Builders
    Lee Hoinacki
    The Experience of Place
    Joseph Rykwert
    The 20th century city
    Lee Hoinacki
    Medieval Philosophical Latin
    Terrance Galvin
    Space versus Place: the loss and recovery of proportionality in architecture
    Jean Robert
    Historical Conceptions of Place
    Ivan Illichs
    The Loudspeaker in the Classroom, in the Belfry & the Minaret
    Kostas Hatzikiriakou
    Where does The Turing Test take Place?
    William Braham
    The Office Landscape: Examining the natural ecology of the cubicle dweller
    Terrance Galvin
    Prologue to Proportionality in Architecture
      Andrew Stanicoff
    "The satellite View of the Sahel: seeing problems for management
       John L. McKnight
    Building Communities from the Inside Out       

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    The keynote lectures     

    LECTURE:     The Loudspeaker in the Classroom, in the Belfry & the Minaret
    BY:                IVAN ILLICH
    WHEN:          September, 2, 2000
    TIME:            7.00 - 9.00PM


  • Arro, Elmar. Musik des Ostens. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1962. 12 vols.
  • Arro, Elmar. Beiträge zur Musikgeschichte Osteuropas (Musica Slavica). Akademie der Wissenschaften
    und der Literatur, Mainz & Musikologisches Institut der Universität Warszawa. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1977.
  • Berlière, U. "Angelus," Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, A. Vacant & E. Mangenot, eds.
    Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1903, vol.1, col. 1278-1282.
  • Carpenter, Edmund & McLuhan, Marshall, "Acoustic Space," Explorations in Communication.
    Edmund Carpenter & Marshall McLuhan, eds. Boston: Beacon Press, 1960, pp. 65-70.
  • Bayart, P., "Cloche," Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique. R. Naz, ed. Paris:
    Librarie Letouzey et Ané, 1942, vol. 3, col. 882-890.
  • Dombart, Th., "Das Semanterium, die frühchristliche Holzglocke." Die christliche Kunst 20(1924):51-63, 77-78.
  • Ellul, Jacques., The Humiliation of the Word, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1985 (selected pages)
  • Illich, Ivan., "Silence is a Commons," In the Mirror of the Past, Marion Boyars, 1992, pp.47-54.
  • Ilich, Ivan, The Loudspeaker on the Tower, 1990
  • Morris, Ernest. Bells of all Nations. London: Robert Hale, 1951.
  • Morris, Ernest. Tintinnabula: Small bells. London: Robert Hale, 1959.
  • Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1934.(selected pages)
  • Otte, Heinrich. Glockenkunde. Leipzig: Weigel, 1884, 2nd ed. revised and enlarged.
  • Price, Percival. Bells and Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
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    LECTURE:     Democracy and Place
    BY:                DOUGLAS LUMMIS
    WHEN :         September, 9, 2000
    TIME:            7.00 - 9.00PM


  • Arendt, Hannah, The Human Condition (New York: Anchor, 1959)
  • Callenbach, Ernest, and Michael Phillips, A Citizen Legislature (Berkeley, Calif.,Banyan Tree Books and Clear Glass, 1985)
  • Havel, Vaclav, "The Power of the Powerless", in Havel, et. al., The Power of the Powerless; Citizens Against the State in Eastern Europe, ed. John Keane (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1985)
  • Jacobson, Norman, "Political Science and Political Education", American Political Science Review (September, 1963)
  • Lummis, C. Douglas, Radical Democracy, (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1996), Ch.1, (see also Chapter 5).
  • Lummis, C. Douglas, "Equality" in Wolfgang Sachs, ed., The Development Dictionary, (London: Zed Books, 1992)
  • Lustig, R. Jeffrey, Corporate Liberalism, (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London:U.C. Press, 1982), Ch. 9.
  • Miller, Joshua, The Rise and Fall of Democracy in Early America, 1630-1789:The Legacy for Contemporary Politics, (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991)
  • Marx, Karl, "On Democracy" (a chapter of his "Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right") in Marx, Selected Writings, David McLellan, ed. (Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 1977)
  • Schaar, John. H., "Some Ways of Thinking About Equality", in Legitimacy and the Modern State, (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1981).Also in Journal of Politics, 26, (Nov. 1964).
  • Shils, Edward, "The Virtue of Civil Society", Government and Opposition, 26, no. 2 (1991)
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de, "Philosophical Method Among the Americans" (Book I, Chapter 1) and "Of Individualism in Democratic Communities" (Book II,Chapter 2), in Democracy in America, v.2 (any edition)
  • Wolin, Sheldon, "The People's Two Bodies", Democracy v.1, (Jan., 1981)
  • Wolin, Sheldon, "Fugitive Democracy", in Constellations: an International Journal of Critical and Democratic Theory, 1 (April, 1994)
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    LECTURE:   Tools for Community Builders
    BY:              JOHN F.C. TURNER
    WHEN :       September, 16, 2000
    TIME:          7.00 - 9.00PM


  • "Tools for Community Regeneration, a Hastings Trust project", with Reante Ruether-Greaves.; in Knight, B. editor, Building Civil Society, current initiatives in voluntary action. Charities Aid Foundation, Kings Hill, West Malling, Kent UK, 1998.
  • "Tools for Building Community, an examination of 13 hypotheses," in Habitat International, Vol.20, No.3, 1996. Editor, Charles Choguill, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  • "Barriers, Channels and Community Control," in David Cadman and Geoffrey Payne, editors, The Living City, towards a sustainable future, Routledge, London, 1990.
  • "Issues and Conclusions," in Turner, Bertha, editor, Building Community, a Third World Case Book, Building Communities Books and Habitat International Forum for Habitat International Coalition, Berlin and London, 1988.
  • "From Central Provision to Local Enablement, new directions for housing policies" in Glaeser, B., Learning from China? Development and environment in Third World Countries, Allen and Unwin, London, 1983.
  • "Housing in Three Dimensions, terms of reference for The Housing Question redefined," in World Development, Vol.6 No.9-10, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978,
  • "The Value of Housing," in John F C Turner, Housing By People, towards autonomy in building environments, Marion Boyars, London 1976 (Pantheon Books, .New York, 1977).
  • "Two Ways of Planning, legislative limits and executive lines," in the Town and Country Planning Journal, Vol.44 No.5, London 1976.
  • "The Fits and Misfits of People's Housing (illustrated.)," in the Royal Institute of Architects' Journal, Vol. No. London,1974.
  • "Housing as a Verb," in Turner, John F C and Fichter, Robert, Freedom to Build, Macmillan, New York, 1972.The Reeducation of a Professional, op. cit.
  • "The Squatter Settlement, Architecture That Works, (illustrated)," in Pidgeon, Monica and Bell, Gwen, The Architecture of Democracy, a special issue of Architectural Design, Vol.8, No.38, London 1968.
  • "Barriers and Channels for Housing in Modernizing Countries (illustrated)," in the Journal of the Amercian Institute of Planners, Washington DC, 1967.
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    LECTURE:    The 20th century city
    BY:              JOSEPH RYKWERT
    WHEN :        September, 23, 2000
    TIME:           7.00 - 9.00PM


  • Rykwert, Joseph "House and Home", in Social Research, v.58, n.1, Spring 1991, pp.51-62.
  • Rykwert, Joseph., The Idea of a Town: The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World, MIT Press 1988.
  • Rykwert, Joseph., The Dancing Column: On Order in Architecture, MIT Press, 1996.
  • Rykwert, Joseph., On Adam's House in Architecture: The Idea of the Primitive Hut in Architectural History, MIT Press 1981.
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    LECTURE:    The Office Landscape: Examining the natural ecology of the cubicle dweller
    BY:              WILLIAM BRAHAM
    WHEN:        October, 29, 2000
    TIME:          7.00 - 9.00PM


  • Brand, Stewart. How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They're Built. New York: Viking, 1994.
    Cruikshank, Dan. "Origins of Offices." The Architectural Review, 174 (November, 1983), 3-12.
  • Certeau, Michel de. The Practice of Everyday Life. Translation of Arts de Faire. Translated by Steven F. Rendall. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Croxton Collaborative. Audubon House: Building Environmentally Responsible, Energy-Efficient Offices. Wiley, 1994.
  • Duffy, Francis. The Changing Workplace. London: Phaidon Press, 1992.
  • Forty, Adrian. Objects of Desire. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.
  • Gilles Deleuze, and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987).
  • Hookway, Branden. Pandemonium: The rise of predatory locales in the postwar world. Princeton Architectural Press, 1999.
  • Emily Martin (1994). Flexible bodies. Tracking immunity in american culture - from the days of polio to the age of AIDS, Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Siegfried Giedion, Mechanization Takes Command: A Contribution to Anonymous History (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1948
  • Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The Design of Energy Responsive Commercial Buildings. Wiley-Interscience, 1985.
  • Worthington, John. Reinventing the Workplace. Institute of Advanced Studies, University of York, 1997.
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    LECTURE :    Space versus Place: the loss and recovery of proportionality in architecture
    BY :               TERRANCE GALVIN
    WHEN :          September, 30, 2000
    WHERE :        200 HARRISON STREET
    TIME :            7.00 - 9.00PM


  • Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time, and Architecture: the growth of a new tradition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954 (3rd edition). (selected chapters)
  • Josten, C.H. "A Translation of John Dee's 'Monas Hieroglyphica' (Antwerp, 1564), with an Introduction and Annotations. Ambix: The Journal of the Society for the Study of Alchemy and Early Chemistry. Vol. XII, No.'s 2 and 3 (June & October, 1963). pp. 84-221.
  • Le Camus de Mzires, Nicolas. Le gnie de l'architecture. The Genius of Architecture; or; The Analogy of That Art with Our Sensations (1780). Introduction by Robin Middleton. Translation by David Britt. Santa Monica, Ca.: The Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities,
  • Morris, Robert. An Essay upon Harmony; as it relates chiefly to Situation and Building. London, 1739
  • Paraclesus. Selected Writings (Bollingen Series XXVIII). Edited by Jolande Jacobi. New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1951.
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus. "Report of a Debate on the Motion 'that Systems of Proportion make good design easier and bad design more difficult'." The Journal of the R.I.B.A. (Royal Institute of British Architects). Vol. 64, No. 11, September, 1957. pp. 456-463.
  • N.B.: The debate was rooted in Rudolf Wittkower's ideas of the humanist tradition, including proportions in architecture. Peter Smithson, et al, were supposedly all there for the vote. Proportion lost 60:48.
  • Wittkower, Rudolph. "The Changing Concept of Proportion." Daedalus (Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences). Vol. 89, 1960. pp. 199-215.
  • Zevi, Bruno. Architecture as Space, how to look at Architecture. Edited Joseph Barry. New York: Horizon Press, 1957.
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    LECTURE :   People regenerating Places
    BY :                  GUSTAVO ESTEVA
    WHEN :            October, 7, 2000
    WHERE :          200 HARRISON STREET
    TIME :              7.00 - 9.00PM


  • "Regenerating People's space" in: Saul H. Mendlovitz and R.B.J.Walker, Towards a Just World Peace. London: Butterworths, 1987; pp.271-298.
  • "Tepito: No Thanks, First World", in: In Context, num.30, Fall/Winter 1991.
  • "Re-embedding Food in Agriculture", in: Culture and Agriculture [Virginia, USA], 48, Winter 1994;
  • "From 'Global Thinking' to 'Local Thinking': Reasons to Go beyond Globalization towards Localization", with M.S.Prakash, in: Osterreichische Zeitschirift für Politikwissenschatft, 2, 1995;
  • "Beyond Development, What?", with M.S. Prakash, in: Development in Practice, Vol. 8, No.3, Aug 1998.
  • "The Zapatistas and People's Power", in Capital & Class, 68, Summer 1999.
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    SEMINAR :     The War on Subsistence: The Thought of Ivan Illich
    BY :                DAVID CAYLEY
    WHEN :          September, 4th and 5th , 2000
    WHERE :        200 HARRISON STREET
    TIME :            7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    The first of these two seminars will introduce Ivan Illich's thought. It will trace the emergence and elaboration of his critique of the modern institutions of economic development, schooling, and medicine; examine his attempts to write "a constitutions of limits" for modern societies; and follow the implications of his growing awareness during the 1980's and after that the world he had hoped to reform was fast passing out of existence. The second seminar will look at Illich's understanding of Christianity, and his hypothesis that the origins of our world lie in a corruption of Christian freedom. "Wherever I look for the roots of modernity," Illich says. "I find it in attempts of the churches to institutionalize and manage Christian vocation."


  • Cayley, David., Ivan Illich in Conversation, Anansi Press, Ontario, 1992.
  • Cayley, David., The Corruption of Christianity: Ivan Illich on Gospel, Church, and Society, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Ideas Transcripts, January 2000. (Available for sale from CBC)
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    SEMINAR :    Medieval Philosophical Latin
    BY :               LEE HOINACKI
    WHEN :         September, 6th, 7th and 13th , 2000
    TIME :           7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    During three formal seminars I offer an introduction to medieval philosophical Latin. Each seminar will be based on a text from the Summa Theologiae or the Contra Gentes of Thomas Aquinas. The aim of the seminars is to introduce participants to thirteenth-century Latin and to the philosophical and theological thought of the Middle Ages. The effort to translate and understand a Latin text by explaining its grammar, syntax and style will also expose participants to the language of medieval philosophy. Further studies of Aquinas and/or Latin will be offered for interested participants.


  • Aquinas, Thomas., Handouts from "Summa Theologiae" and "Contra Gentes."
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    SEMINAR :      The Experience of Place
    BY :                 LEE HOINACKI
    WHEN :           September, 12th, 13th , 2000
    WHERE :         200 HARRISON STREET
    TIME :             7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    This two-part seminar is based on the assumption that no good understanding of space and place is possible apart from the experience of space and place.
    Some experiences are or can be more fruitful than others. At various times in my life, I have been on a quest through spaces searching for the proper way to understand and inhabit a place. I have chronicled these journeys in two books, El Camino: Walking to Compostela, and Stumbling Towards Justice: Stories of Place.
    The seminars will explore questions such as the possible movement from space to place; the relationship between personal and social space; the creation of place; the relationship between temporal and eternal space.
    One of the principal sources for the discussion is the experience of pilgrimage as revelatory of space and place. There are numerous such pilgrimage routes around Oakland beginning with walks to one or more of the California missions. But my bibliographical search has not turned up any recent evidence of walking to these places. For example, two of the most famous tourist guide books to California, Let's Go and The Friendly Planet Guide have no information on walking to places in California. Participants will be encouraged to walk to one of these pilgrimage places, thereby creating the appropriate space.


  • Hoinacki, Lee., El Camino: Walking to Compostela, Pennsylvania University Press, 1995
  • Hoinacki, Lee., Stumbling Towards Justice: Stories of Place., Pennsylvania University Press, 1999.
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    SEMINAR:    Historical Conceptions of Place
    BY:              JEAN ROBERT
    WHEN:         September, 18th, 19th, 20th, 2000 & October 4th and 5th ,
    TIME:          7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    This five-part seminar series explores the experiences of place and habitation from antiquity to modernity. The first session will be devoted to examining the distinction between housing and dwelling. Houses, as the consequence of planning by architects, often inhibit dwelling. The act of dwelling engenders home instead of house, and the second session investigates the relation between house and home. Both these sessions pay attention to the autonomous powers of dwelling that are threatened or destroyed by housing. Oikos and domus are strong Greek and Latin words that historically relate to the acts of dwelling, of creating places. Both have given birth to numerous English words: e.g. ecology, economy, domestic, domesticity.

    The third and fourth sessions are historical hunts on the track of these words and of the concepts they convey in architectural theory and practice. The sessions attempt to recover the deep meanings of these terms beneath their ideological uses. The last session suggests that it is the technology of transportation that transforms perception and makes a space of the places we want to inhabit. The seminar ends with a question: did a special historical relation between writing and architecture not already prepare the ultimate "spatialization" of the dwelling experience?

    Bibliography (A complete bibliography is available for participants on request)

  • Bochner, Salomon, "Space", Dictionary of the History of Ideas, vol. IV, 1973, pp. 295-307. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Benveniste Émile, Indo-European Language and Society, Coral Gables, Florida, 1973
  • Illich, Ivan, H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness, Dallas: The Dallas Institute for Humanities and Culture, or Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1985.
  • Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Vintage Books, 1961.
  • Lynch, Kevin, What Time is this Place?, Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1972.
  • Reed, Christopher, Not at Home: The Suppression of Domesticity in Modern Art and Literature. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996.
  • Robert, Jean., Hestia and Hermes: The Greek Imagination of Motion and Space, Working Paper, 1999.
  • Robert, Jean., The Pedestrian Condition, Working Paper, 1999.
  • Robert, Jean., Rain, Steam, Speed and the New Scopic Regime, Working Paper, 1999.
  • Rudovsky, Bernard, Architecture without Architects, New York, 1964.
  • Rykwert, Joseph, The Idea of a Town. The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
  • Turner, John, Housing by People: Toward Autonomy in Building Environments, London: Marion Boyars, 1976.
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    SEMINAR:   Where Does the Turing Test take place?: On the space that begets 'intelligent artifices'
    BY:             KOSTAS HATZIKiRIAKOU
    WHEN:       September, 25th-27th , 2000
    TIME:         7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    The first of this three-part seminar will describe the mathematical space of the Turing test in particular, and of artificial intelligence in general. The clarification of Turing's 'imitation game' is set in the historical and socio-political context of mathematical logic and cryptology. The second session evaluates the two basic philosophical attacks against artificial intelligence: John Searle's Chinese room argument, and Hubert Dreyfus's phenomenological critique of artificial reason. The third session will show that the claims for artificial intelligence, while consonant with certain basic beliefs and practices of industrial high modernity, also mark the beginning of virtual spaces that are insensible and uninhabitable.


  • Searle, John., "Can computers think?" in Minds, brains, and Science, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp.28-41
  • Turing, A.M, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," MIND, v. LIX, no. 236 (1950).
  • Dreyfus, Hubert., "Introduction to the MIT Press Edition," in What Computers Still Can't Do: A Critique of Artificial Reason., MIT Press, 1992, pp.ix-lii\
  • Lyotard, J.F., The Inhuman, Stanford University Press, pp..
    Post, Emile, "Finite combinatory Processes-Formulation I", Journal of Symbolic Logic, 1, no.3, (1936).
  • Turing, A.M., "On computable numbers with an application to the entshedungsproblem," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, ser. 2, vol. 42, (1936-37), s. 230-266.
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    SEMINAR:    Building Communities from the Inside Out
    BY:                  JOHN L. McKNIGHT
    WHEN:        October, 2nd & 3rd , 2000
    TIME:          7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    Many major institutions and professions, viewing older urban neighborhoods from outside, see deficiencies, problems and needs. They create incentives that confirm their view and communicate their perceptions to the larger society. As a result, the gifts, capacities and assets of older neighborhoods are ignored at best and degraded at worst.
    Our discussion will focus on understanding the assets of an older urban neighborhood with special emphasis on associational life. In associations, local residents attempt to achieve their purposes in spite of the systematic institutional barriers. The history, topography and inventiveness of local associations will be explored and the celebration of citizens enjoyed.


  • Kretzmann, John and John McKnight., Building Communities from the Inside Out, ACTA Publication, 1998
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    SEMINAR:     Language Policy in multilingual settings
    BY:                   ANTJE-KATRIN MENK
    WHEN:             October, 21, 2000
    WHERE:           200 HARRISON STREET
    TIME:               7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    Monolingual myopia seems to be a modern Western disease. This seminar explores the possible parallels between the opinions and arguments of German officials and teachers on the role of German and minority languages in Bremen schools and the arguments on "English only" and "proposition 227" in California. There is a special dilemma for liberal teachers oriented towards 'Equal opportunity'.


  • Menk, Antje-Katrin., "Equality of Opportunity and Assimilation. Or: We German Left-wing Do-Gooders and Minority Language Rights," in Rights to Language: Equity Power, and Education, (ed) Robert Phillipson, Lawrence, Erlbaum Assocates, New Jersey, 2000., pp.122-126.
  • Jalava, Antti., "Mother Tongue and Identity: Nobody could see that I was a Finn," in Minority Education: From Shame to Struggle, (eds) T. Skutnabb-Kangas and J.Cummis, Multilingual Matters, Philadelphia, 1988, pp.161-166.
  • Pattanayak, D.P., "Monolingual Myopia and the petals of the Indian Lotus," in Minority Education: From Shame to Struggle, (eds) T. Skutnabb-Kangas and J.Cummis, Multilingual Matters, Philadelphia, 1988, pp.379-389.
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    SEMINAR : Prologue to Proportionality in Architecture
    WHEN : October, 28, 2000
    TIME : 7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    As an architect engaged in proportionality, Terrance's CROP offering will discuss the loss of proportionality through the concepts of space as 'empty,' as opposed to a relation between the elements, and the analogies of harmony and sensation, through the work of French theorist Nicolas Le Camus de Mzires in the 18th century, leading up to a vote on the very use of proportional systems in architecture in the mid 20th century. The time devoted to these discussions on ratio, proportion, and analogy will be apportioned accordingly. Reciprocity, twin phenomena, and complementarity remain at the heart of the matter.


  • Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time, and Architecture: the growth of a new tradition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954 (3rd edition).
  • Wittkower, Rudolph. "The Changing Concept of Proportion." Daedalus (Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences). Vol. 89, 1960. pp. 199-215.
  • Zevi, Bruno. Architecture as Space, how to look at Architecture. Edited Joseph Barry. New York: Horizon Press, 1957.
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    SEMINAR :     "The satellite View of the Sahel: seeing problems for management
    BY :                ANDREW STANCIOFF
    WHEN :          September, 15, 2000
    WHERE :        200 HARRISON STREET
    TIME :            7.00 - 9.00PM

    Seminar Outline

    The talk reveals the relations between techniques of visualization and management. It is based on a series of slides that show trends of decreasing rainfall in the Sahel of Africa since 1940's and then illustrates the effect of such a trend on agricultural production, food insecurity, poverty, migration and finally conflict. My contention is that scarcity induces social friction. I further contend that scarcity in this area can be predicted and that therefore population movement and potential for conflict can be similarly predicted. Therefore it seems apparent that with foresight proper programs can be put in place to avert or at least mitigate conflict.


  • Sachs, Wolfgang, "The Satellite View," Handouts and slides
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